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A representation of the Roman Empire. The Consummation of Empire by Thomas Cole, oil on canvas (1836)
The term Historical Time can be used here to refer to human history rather than Earth history. Everything from the beginnings of the city-state and civilization in the Chalcolithic through to Bronze Age Near and Middle East, social innovations as commerce, monarchy, the church, and the standing army, the rise and fall of empires, the invention of the printing press, the steam engine and the industrial revolution. As with geological time there seems to be a sort of exponential acceleration, with lots of things happening in the twentieth century, and even more with the information revolution and the global noosphere of the internet.
The entire span of civilization fits here, everything from the Bronze Age through the Iron Age through to the industrial revolution, the Space Age, and the information revolution, the rise and fall of empires and civilizations.
History is defined by the rise and fall of civilization and the growth of human culture and knowledge. This period is characterized by the rise of complex societies, the development of writing, and the emergence of cities and states, the development of early forms of government, religion, and commerce, and the rise of great civilizations such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China, Greece, Rome, and Mesoamerica.
For the fanciful equivalent projected into the future, see the near term far future.
- 5.5 Kya. The invention of writing in Sumer, which marks the beginning of recorded history.
- 5 Kya. Sub-boreal age, warm and dry, climate optimal, the Bronze Age and Writing: The development of bronze metallurgy marked the beginning of the Bronze Age and the rise of complex societies, including the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China. The invention of writing marked a major turning point in human history and allowed for the recording of history, science, and literature.
- 3.2 Kya (1200 BCE): The widespread use of ironworking revolutionized transportation, warfare, and daily life, leading to the growth of empires and expanded trade networks.
- 2.8 to 2.2 Kya. (800- 200 b.c.e.): The Axial Age - as well as the spread of religion and the development of the world's major religions, as well as classical civilisation.
- 2.6 Kya. balmy Sub-boreal age replaced by current Sub-atlantic age begins, colder and wetter
- 2.3 Kya. / 330 BCE: The founding of Alexandria, which becomes a center of learning and culture in the ancient world.
- 202 BCE: The Han dynasty established by Liu Bang (Emperor Gao)
- 27 BCE. Founding of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire, at its height, controlled a large portion of the Western world and had a profound influence on the development of law, architecture, engineering, and administration.
- 1.55 Kya. / 476 CE: The fall of the Western Roman Empire, which marks the end of the ancient world and the beginning of the Middle Ages.
- 0.96 Kya. / 1066 CE: The Norman Conquest of England, which brings Norman-French culture to England and leads to significant political, social, and economic changes.
- 1492 CE: Columbus reaches America, marking the beginning of the Age of Exploration and the colonization of the Americas.
- 1776 CE: The American Revolution, which marks the birth of the United States as an independent nation and the beginning of the modern era.
- 1871 CE: The founding of the German Empire, which marks the beginning of the rise of German power and the growth of European nationalism.
- 1914 CE: The outbreak of World War I, which marks the beginning of the 20th century as a time of conflict, revolution, and rapid change.
- 1945 CE: The end of World War II, which marks the end of European dominance and the beginning of the Cold War and the rise of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers.
- 1989 CE: The fall of the Berlin Wall, which marks the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a new era of global cooperation and integration.
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Page by M Alan Kazlev, 2023