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Engraving of the New Assembly Rooms in 1779 Bath, England - Wikimedia
If Modernity includes the Renaissance, then it began around five or six centuries ago, marked by the transition from the medieval to the modern era. During this time, the world saw significant advances in science, technology, and industry, the growth of commerce (capitalism) and the expansion of European imperialism. This period also saw the rise of the modern nation-state, as well as major social and political revolutions such as the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the growth of democracy, the Industrial Revolution, the development of the modern industrial economy, and the beginning of the modern era of globalisation, accelerating technological progress, and in the last half century or so the Information Revolution.
- 1492: Columbus's voyage to the Americas and the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade.
- 1517: The Protestant Reformation begins with Martin Luther's publication of the Ninety-Five Theses.
- 1648: The Treaty of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War and sets the stage for the modern nation-state system.
- 1776: The American Revolution leads to the creation of the United States.
- 1789: The French Revolution transforms the French state and society. It marked a major turning point in European history, with the fall of the French monarchy and the establishment of a democratic republic based on the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
- 1848: A series of European revolutions challenge the status quo, leading to reforms and greater political freedoms.
- 1914-1918: World War I sees the collapse of several empires and sets the stage for the rise of new powers.
- 1917: The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia establishes the first Communist state.
- 1929-1939: The Great Depression leads to widespread economic and political instability, contributing to the rise of fascist regimes and the eventual outbreak of World War II.
- 1945: The end of World War II marks the beginning of the Cold War and the division of the world into two major political blocs.
- 1954-1968: The American Civil Rights Movement represents the political, legal, and social struggle for equal rights for African Americans, leading to significant reforms in the United States, including the end of legal segregation and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
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Page by M Alan Kazlev, 2023